Archive for April 12th, 2008

Did Americans really landed on Moon???

Posted on April 12, 2008. Filed under: History, Science and Technology |

Friends, in this post i’m about to deal with one of the most controversial topic since the last 5 decades-Apollo Moon Landings by Americans .Believe me being a youngistani it’s worth knowing considering that so much of politics, mystery and technology involved.This one is the best post(collecting the info n abridging-a hectic task) i had worked upon till now.

Apollo Moon Landing hoax accusations are claims that some or all elements of the Apollo Moon landings were faked by NASA and possibly members of other involved organizations. Some groups and individuals have advanced various theories which tend, to varying degrees, to include the following common elements:

  • The Apollo Astronauts did not land on the Moon;
  • NASA and possibly others intentionally deceived the public into believing the landing(s) did occur by manufacturing, destroying, or tampering with evidence, including photos, telemetry tapes, transmissions, and rock samples;
  • NASA and possibly others continue to actively participate in the conspiracy to this day.

Buzz Aldrin and Neil Armstrong in NASA’s training mock-up of the Moon and lander module. Hoax proponents say the entire mission was filmed on sets like this training mock-up.

Predominant Hoax Claims:

A number of different hoax theories have been advanced. No one has proposed a complete narrative of how the hoax could have been perpetrated, but instead believers focus on perceived gaps or inconsistencies in the historical record of the missions. Several of these ideas and their most readily identifiable proponents are described below:

1.Complete hoaxThe idea that the entire human landing program was faked. Some claim that the technology to send men to the Moon was insufficient or that the Van Allen radiation belts, solar flares, solar wind, coronal mass ejections and cosmic rays made such a trip impossible.

2.Partial hoax / unmanned landingsBart Sibrel has stated that the crew of Apollo 11 and subsequent astronauts had faked their orbit around the Moon and their walk on its surface by trick photography, and that they never got more than halfway to the Moon.

3.Manned landings, with cover-upsWilliam Brian believes that the astronauts may have used “a secret zero gravity device” derived from technology found on a “captured extraterrestrial spaceship,” but that NASA was compelled to cover up these facts and others relating to the gravity and the presence of atmosphere on the moon in order to maintain secrecy surrounding the alien space ship

4.Actual lunar landing – faked filmingAdvocates of this theory state that the equipment used to photograph (Hasselblad cameras privately modified by NASA) had no protection for the film against radiation nor intense lighting conditions present on the moon and in space


One of the earthrise photos. The Flat Earth Society used these photos as evidence of a faked landing, since they show a spherical Earth.



Critiques of hoax accusations

Click here to know about the conspiracy surrounding the independent evidence for apollo moon landings

Technological capability of USA compared with the USSR

At the time of Apollo, the Soviet Union had five times more manned hours in space than the US. They had achieved:

  1. First manmade satellite in orbit ,First living creature to enter orbit
  2. First to safely return living creature from orbit, two dogs Belka and Strelka, 40 mice, 2 rats
  3. First man in space
  4. First man to orbit the Earth
  5. First to have two spacecraft in orbit at the same time
  6. First woman in space
  7. First crew of three cosmonauts on board one spacecraft
  8. First spacewalk

On January 27, 1967, the three astronauts aboard Apollo 1 died in a fire on the launch pad during training. The fire was triggered by a spark in the oxygen-rich atmosphere used in the spacecraft test, and fueled by a significant quantity of combustible material within the spacecraft. Two years later all of the problems were declared fixed. Bart Sibrel believes that the accident led NASA to conclude that the only way to ‘win’ the moon race was to fake the landings

Missing data

Photo of the high-quality SSTV image before the scan conversion.

Photo of the degraded image after the SSTV scan conversion

To know more about these suspicious images click here

Evidence by Photographs and Films

1. Crosshairs appear to be behind objects.
2. Crosshairs are sometimes misplaced or rotated.
3. The quality of the photographs is implausibly high
4. There are no stars in any of the photos. The Apollo 11 astronauts also claimed in a press
conference after the event to have not remembered seeing any of the stars.
5. The color and angle of shadows and light are inconsistent.
6. Identical backgrounds in photos are listed as taken miles apart.
7. The number of photographs taken is implausibly high. Up to one photo per 50 seconds
8. The photos contain artifacts like the two seemingly matching ‘C’s on a rock and on the
ground.
9. A resident of Perth, Australia, with the pseudonym “Una Ronald”, said she saw a soft
drink bottle in the frame.
10. The book Moon Shot contains an obvious composite photograph of Alan Shepard hitting a
golf ball on the Moon with another astronaut.
11. There appear to be “hot spots” in some photographs that look like a huge spotlight was
used at a close distance.
12. Footprints in the extraordinarily fine lunar dust, with no moisture or atmosphere or
strong gravity, are unexpectedly well preserved, in the minds of some observers – as if made
in wet sand.


Click here for more detailed description of these 12 evidences


Following
is a Slideshow of photographic evidences their description is given below:

Click on the slideshow and open the image in a new window to see a HQ image

Photo5: Photo of the Earth taken from behind the Apollo 11 Lunar Module.
Photo4: The original Buzz Aldrin photograph.
Photo3: The photo mockup made for the book Moon Shot. The second astronaut is located in the ‘fold’ in the middle of the scanned photo.
Photo2: TV image of the actual scene.

The order of photos may be different for different browsers. Please check out.

Challenges and Responses:

Ionizing Radiation and Heat

An example:The astronauts could not have survived the trip because of exposure to radiation from the Van Allen radiation belt and galactic ambient radiation (see Radiation poisoning). Some hoax theorists have suggested that Starfish Prime (high altitude nuclear testing in 1962) was a failed attempt to disrupt the Van Allen belts.

Click here to know more about challenges and responses posed by Ionization and Heat factors on whether the Landings are fake or not?

Transmissions

An example:The lack of a more than two-second delay in two-way communications at a distance of a 400,000 km (250,000 miles). The round trip light travel time of more than two seconds is apparent in all the real-time recordings of the lunar audio, but this does not always appear as expected. There may also be some documentary films where the delay has been edited out. Principal motivations for editing the audio would likely come in response to time constraints or in the interest of clarity.

The relative sizes of, and distance between, Earth and Moon, to scale, with a beam of light travelling between them at the speed of light.

Click here to know more about challenges posed by Transmissions

Mechanical issues:

An example:
The astronauts were moving the flag into position, causing motion. Since there is no air on the Moon to provide friction, these movements caused a long-lasting undulating movement seen in the flag. There was a rod extending from the top of the flagpole to hold the flag out for proper display (visible under the fabric in many photographs). The fabric’s rippled appearance was due to its having been folded during flight and gave it an appearance which could be mistaken for motion in a still photograph. The top supporting rod of the flag was telescopic and the crew of Apollo 11 found they could not fully extend it. Later crews did not fully extend this rod because they liked how it made the flag appear. A viewing of the videotape made during the Moonwalk shows that shortly after the astronauts remove their hands from the flag/flagpole, it stops moving and remains motionless. At one point the flag is in view for well over thirty minutes and it remains completely motionless throughout that period (and all similar periods).See the images below:

Cropped photo of Buzz Aldrin saluting the flag (Note the fingers of Aldrin’s right hand can be seen behind his helmet).

Cropped photo taken a few seconds later, Buzz Aldrin’s hand is down, head turned toward the camera, the flag is unchanged

Dark side of the Moon-a documentary

Dark Side of the Moon is a French mockumentary by director William Karel which originally aired on Arte in 2002 with the title Opération Lune. The basic premise for the film is the theory that the television footage from the Apollo 11 Moon landing was faked and actually recorded in a studio by the CIA with help from director Stanley Kubrick. It features some surprising guest appearances, most notably by Donald Rumsfeld, Dr. Henry Kissinger, Alexander Haig, Buzz Aldrin and Stanley Kubrick’s widow, Christiane Kubrick.

Deaths of Key Apollo personnel

In a television program about the hoax allegations, Fox Entertainment Group listed the deaths of ten astronauts and of two civilians related to the manned spaceflight program as having possibly been killed as part of a cover-up.
Ted Freeman (T-38 crash, 1964)
Elliott See and Charlie Bassett (T-38 accident, 1966)
Virgil Ivan “Gus” Grissom (Apollo 1 fire, January 1967). His son, Scott Grissom said the accident was a murder.Bill Kaysing also makes this claim
Ed White (Apollo 1 fire, January 1967)
Roger Chaffee (Apollo 1 fire, January 1967)
Ed Givens (car accident, 1967)
C. C. Williams (T-38 accident, October 1967)
X-15 pilot Mike Adams (the only X-15 pilot killed during the X-15 flight test program in November 1967 – not a NASA astronaut, but had flown X-15 above 50 miles).
Robert Lawrence, scheduled to be an Air Force Manned Orbiting Laboratory pilot who died in a jet crash in December 1967, shortly after reporting for duty to that (later canceled) program.
NASA worker
Thomas Baron (automobile collision with train, 1967 shortly after making accusations before Congress about the cause of the Apollo 1 fire, after which he was fired.) Ruled as suicide. Baron was a quality control inspector who wrote a report critical of the Apollo program and was an outspoken critic after the Apollo 1 fire. Baron and his family were killed as their car was struck by a train at a train crossing.[
Lee Gelvani said he almost convinced
James Irwin, an Apollo 15 astronaut whom Gelvani referred to as an “informant”, to confess about a cover-up having occurred. Irwin was supposedly going to contact Gelvani about it; however he died of a heart attack in 1991, before any such telephone call occurred.

Click here for Apollo hoax in popular culture and parody

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